Print page Resize text Change font-size Change font-size Change font-size High contrast


methodologicalGuide10_3_1.shtml
Home > Standards & Guidances > Methodological Guide

ENCePP Guide on Methodological Standards in Pharmacoepidemiology

 

10.3.1. Introduction

Pharmacogenetics is defined as the study of genetic variation as a determinant of drug response. It can complement information on clinical factors and disease sub-phenotypes to optimise the prediction of treatment response.

 

Individual variation in the response to drugs is an important clinical issue and may range from a lack of therapeutic effect to serious adverse drug reactions. This heterogeneity of response has important policy implications if individual patients not responding to conventional agents are denied access to other agents based on clinical trial evidence and systematic reviews that show no overall benefit. While clinical variables such as disease severity, age, concomitant drug use and illnesses are potentially important determinants of the response to drugs, heterogeneity in drug disposition (absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion) and targets (such as receptors and signal transduction modulators) may be an important cause of inter-individual variability in the therapeutic effects of drugs (see Pharmacogenomics: translating functional genomics into rational therapeutics. Science 1999;286(5439):487-91). Identification of variation in genes which modify the response to drugs provides the opportunity to optimise safety and effectiveness of the currently available drugs and develop new drugs for paediatric and adult populations (see Drug discovery: a historical perspective. Science 2000;287(5460):1960-4).

 

 

Individual Chapters:

 

1. Introduction

2. Formulating the research question

3. Development of the study protocol

4. Approaches to data collection

4.1. Primary data collection

4.1.1. Surveys

4.1.2. Randomised clinical trials

4.2. Secondary data collection

4.3. Patient registries

4.3.1. Definition

4.3.2. Conceptual differences between a registry and a study

4.3.3. Methodological guidance

4.3.4. Registries which capture special populations

4.3.5. Disease registries in regulatory practice and health technology assessment

4.4. Spontaneous report database

4.5. Social media and electronic devices

4.6. Research networks

4.6.1. General considerations

4.6.2. Models of studies using multiple data sources

4.6.3. Challenges of different models

5. Study design and methods

5.1. Definition and validation of drug exposure, outcomes and covariates

5.1.1. Assessment of exposure

5.1.2. Assessment of outcomes

5.1.3. Assessment of covariates

5.1.4. Validation

5.2. Bias and confounding

5.2.1. Selection bias

5.2.2. Information bias

5.2.3. Confounding

5.3. Methods to handle bias and confounding

5.3.1. New-user designs

5.3.2. Case-only designs

5.3.3. Disease risk scores

5.3.4. Propensity scores

5.3.5. Instrumental variables

5.3.6. Prior event rate ratios

5.3.7. Handling time-dependent confounding in the analysis

5.4. Effect measure modification and interaction

5.5. Ecological analyses and case-population studies

5.6. Pragmatic trials and large simple trials

5.6.1. Pragmatic trials

5.6.2. Large simple trials

5.6.3. Randomised database studies

5.7. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis

5.8. Signal detection methodology and application

6. The statistical analysis plan

6.1. General considerations

6.2. Statistical analysis plan structure

6.3. Handling of missing data

7. Quality management

8. Dissemination and reporting

8.1. Principles of communication

8.2. Communication of study results

9. Data protection and ethical aspects

9.1. Patient and data protection

9.2. Scientific integrity and ethical conduct

10. Specific topics

10.1. Comparative effectiveness research

10.1.1. Introduction

10.1.2. General aspects

10.1.3. Prominent issues in CER

10.2. Vaccine safety and effectiveness

10.2.1. Vaccine safety

10.2.2. Vaccine effectiveness

10.3. Design and analysis of pharmacogenetic studies

10.3.1. Introduction

10.3.2. Identification of generic variants

10.3.3. Study designs

10.3.4. Data collection

10.3.5. Data analysis

10.3.6. Reporting

10.3.7. Clinical practice guidelines

10.3.8. Resources

Annex 1. Guidance on conducting systematic revies and meta-analyses of completed comparative pharmacoepidemiological studies of safety outcomes