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Home > Standards & Guidances > Methodological Guide

ENCePP Guide on Methodological Standards in Pharmacoepidemiology


4.3.3. Methodological guidance

The US Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) published a comprehensive document on ‘good registry practices’ entitled Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide, 3rd Edition, which provides methodological guidance on planning, design, implementation, analysis, interpretation and evaluation of the quality of a registry. There is a dedicated section for linkage of registries to other data sources. The EU PARENT Joint Action developed methodological and governance guidelines to facilitate cross-border use of registries.  


Results obtained from analyses of registry data may be affected by the same biases as those of studies described in section 5.2 Bias and confounding. Registries are particularly sensitive to the occurrence of selection bias. This is due to the fact that factors that may influence the enlistment of patients in a registry may be numerous (including clinical, demographic and socio-economic factors) and difficult to predict and identify, potentially resulting in a biased sample of the patient population in case the recruitment has not been exhaustive. In addition, studies that use registry data may also introduce selection bias in the recruitment or selection of registered patient for the specific study, as well as in the differential completeness of follow-up and data collection. It is therefore important to systematically compare the characteristics of the study population with those of the source population.


The randomised registry trial is a new study design that combines the robustness of randomised studies with the higher generalisability of registry data, see section 5.6.3.





Individual Chapters:


1. Introduction

2. Formulating the research question

3. Development of the study protocol

4. Approaches to data collection

4.1. Primary data collection

4.1.1. Surveys

4.1.2. Randomised clinical trials

4.2. Secondary data collection

4.3. Patient registries

4.3.1. Definition

4.3.2. Conceptual differences between a registry and a study

4.3.3. Methodological guidance

4.3.4. Registries which capture special populations

4.3.5. Disease registries in regulatory practice and health technology assessment

4.4. Spontaneous report database

4.5. Social media and electronic devices

4.6. Research networks

4.6.1. General considerations

4.6.2. Models of studies using multiple data sources

4.6.3. Challenges of different models

5. Study design and methods

5.1. Definition and validation of drug exposure, outcomes and covariates

5.1.1. Assessment of exposure

5.1.2. Assessment of outcomes

5.1.3. Assessment of covariates

5.1.4. Validation

5.2. Bias and confounding

5.2.1. Selection bias

5.2.2. Information bias

5.2.3. Confounding

5.3. Methods to handle bias and confounding

5.3.1. New-user designs

5.3.2. Case-only designs

5.3.3. Disease risk scores

5.3.4. Propensity scores

5.3.5. Instrumental variables

5.3.6. Prior event rate ratios

5.3.7. Handling time-dependent confounding in the analysis

5.4. Effect measure modification and interaction

5.5. Ecological analyses and case-population studies

5.6. Pragmatic trials and large simple trials

5.6.1. Pragmatic trials

5.6.2. Large simple trials

5.6.3. Randomised database studies

5.7. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis

5.8. Signal detection methodology and application

6. The statistical analysis plan

6.1. General considerations

6.2. Statistical analysis plan structure

6.3. Handling of missing data

7. Quality management

8. Dissemination and reporting

8.1. Principles of communication

8.2. Communication of study results

9. Data protection and ethical aspects

9.1. Patient and data protection

9.2. Scientific integrity and ethical conduct

10. Specific topics

10.1. Comparative effectiveness research

10.1.1. Introduction

10.1.2. General aspects

10.1.3. Prominent issues in CER

10.2. Vaccine safety and effectiveness

10.2.1. Vaccine safety

10.2.2. Vaccine effectiveness

10.3. Design and analysis of pharmacogenetic studies

10.3.1. Introduction

10.3.2. Identification of generic variants

10.3.3. Study designs

10.3.4. Data collection

10.3.5. Data analysis

10.3.6. Reporting

10.3.7. Clinical practice guidelines

10.3.8. Resources

Annex 1. Guidance on conducting systematic revies and meta-analyses of completed comparative pharmacoepidemiological studies of safety outcomes