A generic study protocol to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination in EU Member States has been published by the ECDC. It recommends the information that needs to be collected to compare the incidence/proportion of rotavirus cases in the period before the introduction of the vaccine to the incidence/proportion of rotavirus cases in the period following the introduction of the vaccine. These generic protocols need to be adapted to each country/regions and specific situation.
The impact of vaccination can be quantified in children in the age group targeted for the vaccine (overall effect) or in children of other age groups (indirect effect). The direct effect of a vaccine, however, needs to be defined by the protection it confers given a specific amount of exposure to infection and not just a comparable exposure. Direct and indirect effects in vaccine efficacy and effectiveness (Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133(4):323-31) describes how parameters intended to measure direct effects must be robust and interpretable in the midst of complex indirect effects of vaccine intervention programmes.
Impact of rotavirus vaccination in regions with low and moderate vaccine uptake in Germany (Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012; 8(10):1407-15) describes an impact assessment of rotavirus vaccination comparing the incidence rates of hospitalisations before, and in seasons after, vaccine introduction using data from national mandatory disease reporting system.
First year experience of rotavirus immunisation programme in Finland (Vaccine 2012; 31(1):176-82) estimates the impact of a rotavirus immunisation programme on the total hospital inpatient and outpatient treated acute gastroenteritis burden and on severe rotavirus disease burden during the first year after introduction. The study may be considered as a vaccine-probe-study, where unspecific disease burden prevented by immunisation is assumed to be caused by the agent the vaccine is targeted against.
|Annex 1.||Guidance on conducting systematic revies and meta-analyses of completed comparative pharmacoepidemiological studies of safety outcomes|